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    从湖泊演化角度谈武汉创建国际湿地城市

    顾延生 李越南 谢树成 殷鸿福

    顾延生, 李越南, 谢树成, 殷鸿福, 2023. 从湖泊演化角度谈武汉创建国际湿地城市. 地球科学, 48(8): 3193-3204. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.421
    引用本文: 顾延生, 李越南, 谢树成, 殷鸿福, 2023. 从湖泊演化角度谈武汉创建国际湿地城市. 地球科学, 48(8): 3193-3204. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.421
    Gu Yansheng, Li Yuenan, Xie Shucheng, Yin Hongfu, 2023. On the Establishment of Wuhan as an International Wetland City from the Perspective of Lake Evolution. Earth Science, 48(8): 3193-3204. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.421
    Citation: Gu Yansheng, Li Yuenan, Xie Shucheng, Yin Hongfu, 2023. On the Establishment of Wuhan as an International Wetland City from the Perspective of Lake Evolution. Earth Science, 48(8): 3193-3204. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.421

    从湖泊演化角度谈武汉创建国际湿地城市

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.421
    基金项目: 

    中国工程科技发展战略湖北研究院咨询研究项目 KZ19Z5006

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      顾延生(1970-), 男, 教授, 主要从事生态地质环境的教学与科研工作.ORCID: 0000-0001-6620-1946.E-mail: ysgu@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P641.6

    On the Establishment of Wuhan as an International Wetland City from the Perspective of Lake Evolution

    • 摘要: 武汉是百湖之市,是世界内陆城市湖泊资源最丰富的城市之一,2022年获得了“国际湿地城市”认证.为了深入推进“国际湿地城市”建设,需要查明武汉地区湖泊形成演化历史及其影响因素.为此,系统探讨了区域构造环境、河道演化、气候变化及人类活动对武汉地区湖泊形成演化和生态环境的影响.结果表明,武汉地区众多湖泊的形成有其深刻的地质环境与气候背景.在第四纪新构造掀斜抬升背景影响下,区域沉降与拗陷作用为成湖创造了条件,末次冰消期以来温暖湿润气候促进了湖群的兴盛.历史时期以来,汉水下游河口段演化对汉口和汉阳地区湖泊形成演化影响深刻.近百年来,日益增强的人类活动带来武汉地区湖泊快速萎缩、污染与生态退化问题,旱涝灾害加剧.因此,深刻反思人湖关系,充分考虑湖泊生态系统自然恢复的长期性和人类活动引发的生态系统严重退化的不可逆性,建立和谐共生的人湖模式对武汉城市生态安全至关重要.基于以上湖泊演化的历史教训与问题,在当前长江大保护和武汉创建“国际湿地城市”的关键时期,我们有针对性提出武汉地区湖泊生态保护的“世界湿地之都”战略规划,亟需“统筹规划山水林田湖草保护体系、污染与退化湖泊水体环境治理与生态恢复、建立湖泊健康管理的武汉范式”顶层设计,进一步完善湖泊生态保护、治理、管理与评价体系.以上研究不仅有利于武汉创建“国际湿地城市”,且为把武汉建成“世界湿地之都”,深入实施“长江大保护”战略树立了典范作用.

       

    • 图  1  武汉地区构造环境与湖泊分布图

      改自湖北省地质调查院(2003);①. 襄樊-广济断裂;②. 麻城-团风断裂;③. 咸宁-灵乡断裂;④.沙湖-湘阴断裂;⑤. 武汉-嘉鱼断裂;⑥. 英店-青山口断裂;⑦. 三合断裂

      Fig.  1.  Outline map of tectonic environment and the distribution pattern of lakes in Wuhan Area

      图  3  近百年来武汉市区人口、城区面积与湖泊面积变化统计

      a. 湖泊面积变化(1927~2018、参照1927年城区面积);b. 武汉市户籍人口变化(武汉地方志编纂委员会,2010武汉市统计局,2018);c. 武汉市建筑用地面积变化(武汉市城市规划管理局,1999杨欣和谢向向,2020);d. 武汉市社会生产总值变化(武汉市统计局, 1989, 2018);e. 近百年来武汉市洪水干旱记录(刘志文等,2014Zhang et al., 2019侯雨坤和耿川,2022

      Fig.  3.  Statistics of urban population, urban area and lake area in Wuhan in the past hundred years

      图  2  近百年来(1927~2018年)武汉地区(红色框区)湖泊演化历史分布图

      底图来源:中华民国十六年(1927)湖北省汉口地图(日军参谋本部陆地测量局1927年绘制);1944年大武汉市地形图(湖北省政府1944年绘制);1952年武汉市区全图(武汉市人民政府建设局1952年绘制);1960年武汉市地图(武汉市勘测公司(现武汉市测绘研究院)1960年绘制);1973,1983年Langsat-1-MSS数据;2003,2010年Langsat-5-TM数据;2014,2018年Langsat-8-OLI数据

      Fig.  2.  Distribution picture of lake evolution history in Wuhan Area (red box area) in the recent century (1927-2018 AD)

      表  1  近百年来(1927~2018年)武汉地区湖泊数量与面积变化

      Table  1.   Changes in lake number and area in Wuhan in the past hundred years (1927-2018 AD).

      年代(AD) 数量(个) 面积(km2 较1927变化量(km2 较1927变化率
      1927 38 389.12
      1944 38 388.98 -0.13 0.00
      1952 55 259.54 -129.58 -0.33
      1960 65 208.80 -180.31 -0.46
      1973 88 149.07 -240.05 -0.62
      1983 76 152.08 -237.03 -0.61
      1993 96 137.66 -251.45 -0.65
      2003 82 115.45 -273.66 -0.70
      2010 86 120.28 -268.83 -0.69
      2014 85 108.22 -280.89 -0.72
      2018 86 113.70 -275.42 -0.71
      注:数据来源:中华民国十六年(1927)湖北省汉口地图(日军参谋本部陆地测量局1927年绘制);1944年大武汉市地形图(湖北省政府1944年绘制);1952年武汉市区全图(武汉市人民政府建设局1952年绘制);1960年武汉市地图(武汉市勘测公司(现武汉市测绘研究院)1960年绘制);1973,1983年Langsat-1-MSS数据;1993,2003,2010年Langsat-5-TM数据;2014,2018年Langsat-8-OLI数据;地图统计10亩以上、遥感图统计20亩以上湖泊面积)
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2022-10-03
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